Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis, 2nd Revised Edition
"There are race differences in a number of diseases that have a genetic basis including cystic fibrosis, PKU (phenylketonuria), hypertension, stroke, diabetes, prostate cancer, breast cancer, obesity, myopia, and schizophrenia. These differences have arisen through the processes of founder effects, genetic drift, mutation, and adaptation. There is such an extensive body of research on these that it would take a book to summarize it. The differences are illustrated here by the genre frequencies of cystic fibrosis and PKU in Europeans, sub-Saharan Africans, and East Asians (Orientals)... The figures represent the gene frequencies (percentage value rates) in the population. Gene frequencies of cystic fibrosis in Europeans are four or five times higher than in sub-Saharan Africans and East Asians, while gene frequencies of PKU are slightly more than twice as high in Europeans than in the other two races. The lower half of the table shows that the gene frequencies of the two diseases are quite similar in different Europeanpopulations as widely dispersed as Austria, Australia, Canada, England, and the United States." pp. 17.
"Despite the denials for the existence of race by a number of American anthropologists, the reality of race is widely accepted throughout the rest of society... medical journals contain numerous papers on race differences in a variety of diseases and disabilities... There is a journal Ethnicity and Health... In social sciences there are two journals devoted to race differences (Race and Class, and Ethnic and Racial Studies), and other journals contain numerous papers on race differences in intelligence, educational attainment, earnings, socioeconomic status, unemployment, prejudice, discrimination, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, drug addition, sexual experience, longevity, crime, and mental retardation. Corporations promote equal opportunities for the races in the ir employment and often grant preferences for non-Whites in hiring. Employees sue corporations for racial discrimination in favor of Black and hispanic applicants. Judges pronounce that racially segregated schools are unconstitutional. Citizens in many countries state their race in census returns, and these are analyzed by sociologists and demographers. In Britain there is a Race Relaations Commision whose task is to promote racial equality and prosecute employers for racial discrimination. Neither the people responsible for this work nor the general public has an difficulty in understanding what race means and no doubt woul dbe amazed to learn that many American anthropologists asset that race does not exist.
It may be wondered why a number of American anthropologists reject the concept of race. The answer has been given by two Polish anthropologists... They write: "Americans have become very sensitive to race, and the term has acquired strongly sensitive connotations. Many American sciensts have opted for the non-existence of human races. Furthermore, the growing demands of "political correctness" militate against the use of the term in and outside science... Few scientists dare to study racial origins, lest they be branded racists simply for being interested in the problem." The reason for the rejection fo the concept of race by a number of American anthropologists is appent from the title of Montagu's book, Man's Most Dangerous Myth. Montagu evidently believed that people's consciousness of race is dangerous because it tends to foster racial antagonisms that can escalate into conflict. To prevent this, it woul dbe better for hte concept of race to be suppressed. In Europe, most anthropologists acept the validity of the concept of race... It is mainly in the United States that the existence of race has come ot be denied by a number of anthropologists and a few biologists and social scientists who have sacrificed their scientific integrity to political correctness." pp. 18-21.
"In addition to these cognitive problems of survival in the northern hemisphere, a further selection pressure for greater intelligence would have been the operation of sexual selection by women. In Eurasia and North America, women would have becoime entirely dependent on men for much of the year to provide food for themselves and their children. In equatorial Africa and the southern hemisphere, where planet and insect foods are available throughout the yar, women are relatively independent of men. Even women with infants and young dependent children can take these with them on foraging trips, or can leave them in the care of other women for a few hours while they go out and gather plant foods. It would have been more difficult and frequently impossible for women with infants and young children in the northern hemisphere to go out on hunting expeditions (possibly lasting several days), kill and dismember large mammals, and carry pieces of them for many miles back to camps. The effect of this would have been that women int he norhtern hemisphere would have depended on men to bring them food. They would, therefore have tended to acept as mates intelligent women who were good at hunting and making tools and weapons. The effect of this sexual selection by women would have been that intelligent men would have had more children, and this would have incresed the intelligence of the group. Another effect of the greater dependence of women on men in Eurasia would have been that men and women would become psychologically more closely bonded. This potentially explains why the marriages and non-marital relationships of Europeans and East Asia peoples are more stable than those of sub-Sharan Africans." pp. 254-255.
"Two genetical processes must be assumed to explain the evolution of race differences in intelligence. The first of these is that difference sin the frequencies of the alleles for high and low intelligence have evolved between races such that the alleles for high intelligence are more common in the races with higher IQs and less common in the races with lower IQs..." pp.245.